PRINCIPLES

OF

COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY

**

6

BY THE SAME AUTHOR

PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Fotjkth Edition. 8vo. 28s.

A MANUAL OF PHYSIOLOGY.

Second Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 12s. 6d.

PRINCIPLES

\7.l

OF

COMPARATIVE

PHYSIOLOGY.

BY

WILLIAM B. CABPENTEB, M.D., F.B.S., F.G.S.

EXAMINER IN PHYSIOLOGY AND COMPARATIVE ANATOMY

IN THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON;

PROFESSOR OF MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE IN UNIVERSITY COLLEGE;

PRESIDENT OF THE MICROSCOPICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON,

ETC. ETC.

xfy ffijjm flwitofo ffl&aab ©ngrabhrgs.

JFourti) tuition.

LONDON:

JOHN CHURCHILL, NEW BURLINGTON STREET

V

{Established in Princes Street, Soho, 1784.)

M DCCC LIV.

>

Cartibridc* fcfifty

.roiwy*

M*^

* V

«$fcft

itfany

>

TO

SIR JOHN

F. W. HERSCHEL

K.H. F.R.8. L. AND E. ETC.

THIS VOLUME IS

MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED,

AS A TRIBUTE DUE ALIKE

TO

HIS HIGH SCIENTIFIC ATTAINMENTS,

AND MORAL WORTH,

AND AS AN EXPRESSION OF GRATITUDE FOR

THE BENEFIT DERIVED FROM HIS

u

DISCOURSE ON THE STUDY OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY,"

BY

THE AUTHOR.

^™

*

^

PREFACE.

<<

SCIENCE IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF MANY, ORDERLY AND METHODICALLY DIGESTED AND

ARRANGED, SO AS TO BECOME ATTAINABLE BY ONE." Sir John F. W. Herschel.

The success of the Third Edition of the " Principles of Physiology, General and Comparative/' as evinced, not merely by its rapid sale, but by the numerous expressions of high appreciation which it drew forth from those most competent to j udge of its merits, has encouraged the Author to carry into effect a change of plan which had suggested itself to him during its preparation. For having been led-on by the

desire of rendering his work as complete as possible, to enlarge it to the

utmost admissible dimensions of a single volume, he felt that it would be impossible to do justice to any subsequent extensions which its subject might receive, without making some alteration in its form. And this conclusion acquired a greatly-increased force, when the demand for a new Edition led him to survey the deficiencies, which, notwithstanding all his care, had been left in the former one ; and to estimate the amount of new matter, not only deserving but requiring notice, which the diligence of observers in various departments of this comprehensive Science had

accumulated in the short interval. Instead of dividing the entire Treatise

into two Volumes, however, as suggested to him by many of his friends, the Author has preferred to divide its subjects, and to treat of them separately though connectedly.

The present Volume, therefore, consists of the " Comparative Phy- siology" of the last Edition, extended from 530 pages to 744, and with 300 illustrations instead of 130. The First Chapter (the Eighth of the former Edition) has been entirely re-written, with the view of bringing into greater prominence the general doctrine of Progress from the General to the Special; the enunciation of which by Von Baer (nearly thirty years ago) appears to the Author to mark a most important era in the Philosophy of Physiology, although it is far from having received the notice which it deserved from various subsequent writers who have

*

Vlll

PREFACE.

followed in the same track. The principal additions and alterations in the succeeding Chapters (as to the general arrangement of which no

'*y)

which relates to the Water

System, and in the part of

has

Chapter XL which treats of the Sexuality of the Cryptogamia; in regard to which latter point the Author would observe, that the course of recent discovery has fully borne-out the anticipations he expressed in the former edition. The whole work, however, has been most care- fully revised; and the Author ventures to think that the present Edition more completely represents the state of the Science at the period of its publication, than any of its predecessors have done. He can honestly say that he has spared no time or labour in its preparation, which it has been in his power to bestow. And he looks with hope, therefore, to a continuance of that friendly indulgence with regard to errors and short- comings, which has been so liberally afforded on previous occasions. As to certain points on which his opinions have undergone modification, he can again refer with satisfaction to the following passage in the Preface to his former editions: "Truth is his only object; and, even if his own doctrines should be overthrown by more extended researches, he will rej oice in their demolition, as he would in that of any other error. The character of the true philosopher as described by Schiller, always loved truth better than his system, will ever, he trusts, be the goal of his intellectual ambition."

In attempting to embody in a Systematic Treatise the general aspect of Physiology or any other Science of like comprehensiveness, it will be obvious that an Author, however extensive his own range of acquire- ment, must largely avail himself of the labours of others ; and that the scientific character of such a treatise must depend, not so much on the amount of original matter it may contain, as on the degree in which

*

" the knowledge of many" has been " orderly and methodically digested and arranged, so as to become attainable by one." It is by this standard that the Author desires his work to be tried; and he cheerfully leaves the verdict to -the judgment of those, who are qualified by their own knowledge of the subject to pronounce it. He feels it due to himself, however, to state that he has devoted considerable time and attention to the verification of the statements of other observers, especially on points under dispute, a kind of labour which is but little appreciated by those, who contemptuously designate works like the present as "mere compilations;" and that a large amount of materials, drawn from his

PREFACE.

wnZ&AqTT soattered throagb the voA- » ™M »-

been T d ! T i g ^ lMt ^ «"*' I"-*—* lad he

~ ptrr ; *, his °°nstant aim has ^ *> ™*-* «.

one ^oToftT ^ ^ meth°di0aUy' mthCT than *»» any

comi„„ ri TUlIOnS PM »***■«»* rather than te he read 7 L w fTg , ^^ "^ ** the attent^ <* his shown 1 the d ' mWe°Ter' ** "***** m^ "e as much

observed bv0ttPm^ "JT ^^ "*"" ** «* I*™

he h a/f_? r ,??" Comtoed -d arranged his materials,

to staJmlTthiT ^ ImPart a MW "* me^eted valu

statements, which, in their previously isolated condition were of comparatively insignificant import

Procure upon each department of the sutW i+ : , ,

r ted that he shouid he e^y ^ ,^J

^ le s^: »V; " Parti°Ular ^rtmenJinto detli, ^

or evenas iTwl^^ ^ «™ "*«* " ^eieneies,

be estimated W s. , mUSt be« that his work may

-bat 72 1 T r ^ '' "* ratb6r by VLat * *«* than * by me e tmon f ^ W°UM haTC ^ &r eMier expand it

fo»d o 2Zt2 , ^ PreSen' dimenSi°M' *flan it has heen

»ow oeenpST accumulated maaa within the space which it even

"S^ZS t"?r'S endeaVO"' Where™r Praa-bk> to draw the Treaties ' £f* " *? ^ ** * m— *«* *•" original freqnenl !rf, "T*"**- « and thns to avoid tke errors which too

however toT- ">»« transmission. To have attempted,

wever, to assign eaeh individual fact to its original disco™. 7

doctrine to its first ennnciator, wonld have augmented t b, W ", vehime tar beyond the dimension, appropriat! "-Book"' £

Part ' *„ «, * compelled to lnmt his references, for the most

Pai t, to those new facts and doctrine* ,,,1, i, , ,

become part of the common stock "^ * ** "U ^

o> such references has W , * , Ph^ological Science. The nnmher

tbe - Xndex of Aut W h it" T^ " ^ I*~* ««*» i and

Authors which has been added, will, it is hoped, be ound

X

PBEFACE.

•eadiness which

useful in enabling the reader at once to turn to the notice of any original observation that he may desire to retrace. The Illustrations not his own which likewise have received numerous important additions, are referred to their originals in the list at the commencement of the Volume ; and this list will also afford useful assistance to those, who may desire to carry-out their enquiries in any particular direction.

The Author cannot bring his task to a conclusion, without expressing

the great obligations under which he lies to his friend Mr. T. H. Huxley,

not only for many valuable suggestions, but also for the

he has on all occasions evinced, to impart to him whatever he might seek

from his own extensive stores of original and acquired information ; nor

without paying his tribute of regard to the memory of his lamented

friend Mr. G. Newport, whose premature death has deprived British

Science of one of its most ardent and disinterested votaries, at a time

when he was beginning to reap, in the appreciation of his discoveries

on the Impregnation of the Amphibia* the credit so justly due to his

laborious, accurate, and sagacious researches, in the new field to the

cultivation of which he had latterly applied himself.

It is the Author's intention to reproduce the « General Physiology" of his former Edition, as a companion-volume to the present, so soon as the numerous demands upon his time may permit him to bestow upon that part of his revision the careful attention which it requires.

University Hali-, London,

June 1, 1854.

* In a Postscript to the work referred-to in the note to p. 536 written almost contem- poraneously with Mr. Newport's decease, Prof. Bischoff states that he has himself con- firmed Mr N.'s observation of the penetration of the Spermatozoon into the ovum of the Frog, and gives him full credit for the determination of this important fact.

MMV

^^■B '-K^^L^^^H

if*fll

TABLE OF CONTENTS

i.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

i .

CHAPTER I.

ON THE GENERAL PLAN OP ORGANIC STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT.

Analysis and Comparison of Phenomena afforded by Organic Structure :

Homology and Analogy ....

Conformity of Structure of each group to General Design or Archetype :■

Egress from General to Special in its various modifications . Diversities in Grade of Development .

General Survey of Vegetable Kingdom.

Protopkyta .

Thallogens (Algae, Lichens, Fungi)

A crogens (Hepaticae, Mosses, Ferns) . . Phanerogamia ......

General Survey of Animal Kingdom.

Protozoa (Porifera, Rhizopoda, Infusoria) .... Radiata (Polypifera, Acalephas, Echinodermata) . Mollusca (Bryozoa, Tunicata, Brachiopoda, Lamellibranchiata, Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, Cephalopoda) ....

A rticulata (Entozoa, Annelida, Myriapoda, Insects, Crustacea,' Arachnida)

Vertebrata (Fishes, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals) .

Progress from General to Special in Development

Rudimentary Organs ........

Monstrosities .........

Geological Succession of Organic Life

PAGE

1

10

17

22 23 28 33

39 41

50

59

71

95

101

105

107

CHAPTER II.

1.

GENERAL VIEW OP THE VITAL OPERATIONS OP LIVING BEINGS, AND

OP THEIR MUTUAL RELATIONS.

Analysis and Classification of Phenomena presented by Vital Action

2. Mutual Relations of Organic and Animal Functions

3. Organic Functions separately considered

4. Animal Functions separately considered

5. Progress from General to Special in Function

121

123 125

128 129

*

XII

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER IIL

OF ALIMENT, ITS INGESTION, ANI) PREPARATION

in Plants

1 . Sources of Demand for Aliment .

2. Nature of the Alimentary Materials

3. Ingestion and Preparation of Aliment

4. Ingestion and Preparation of Aliment in Animals

Agastric Animals Unicellular Animals . Polystome Animals . Oral Apparatus Prehensile Appendages Reducing Apparatus Digestive Apparatus . Nature of Digestive Process

CHAPTER IV.

OF ABSORPTION AND IMBIBITION

PAGE

132

139

151

153

153

153

157

158

162

164

169

183

1. General Considerations

2. Absorption in Vegetables

3. Absorption in Animals

186 193 199

CHAPTER V.

NUTRITIVE

1. General Considerations

2. Circulation in Vegetables .

3. Circulation in Animals

Absence of Special Circulation in Certain Classes

Circulation in Eadiata : Echinodermata

Circulation in A rticulata : Annelida .

Myriapoda

Insects Arachnida Crustacea .

Circulation in Mollusca : Bryozoa

Tunicata .

Brachiopoda

Lamellibranchiata

Gasteropoda Cephalopoda

Circulation in Vertebrata : Fishes

Eeptiles Birds Mammals

Forces which move the Blood Development of Circulating Apparatus Malformations of Circulating Apparatus

212 213 221

225

227 229

235 237 239 242 245 246 249 250 251 253 255 258 263 263 264 268

277

CONTENTS.

* *

Xlll

1.

3.

General Considerations Respiration in Plants Respiration in Animals Aquatic Respiration

CHAPTER VI.

OF RESPIRATION.

Water- Vascular System :-Rotifera

Protozoa, Zoophyt Echinodermata

es, and

Branchial Respiration

Atmospheric Respirati

Entozoa

Bryozoa

Tunicata

Brachiopoda .

Lamellibranchiat Gasteropoda . Cephalopoda . Annelida

Crustacea Pishes .

Batrachia

a

ion :— Myriapoda Insects Arachnida Pishes (air-bladder)

Perennibranchiata Reptiles

Birds Mammal

n mammals

development of Respiratory Apparatus . Aiteratinna ^w^^^a 1 t> . . .

effected

Acaleph

se

CHAPTER VII.

l.

2.

General Considerations Exhalation in Plants 3. Exhalation in Animals

OF THE EXHALATION OE AQUEOUS

VAPOUR

1

General Considerations

CHAPTER VIII

OF NUTRITION.

Term of Duration of Individual Parts Assimilation and Formation . 2. Nutrition in Vegetables

Growth and Multiplication of Cells Assimilating Process in Vascnlar Plants Production of Vegetable Organic Compound

PAGE

280 283 290 294

295

297

298

300

301

304

305 306

307 308 310 312 316

317 318

322 323 325 325

327 330 332 333

339 339 346

351 352 356 360 360 369 372

XIV

CONTENTS.

3. Nutrition in Animals

Assimilation of Nutritive Materials

Chyle and Lymph Vascular Glands

Composition and Properties of Blood of Vertebrata Nutritive Fluid of Zoophytes

Echinodermata Articulata Mollusca .

Growth and Multiplication of Cells Production of Animal Organic Compounds Conditions of Nutritive Activity in Animals

PAGE

379

379

381

384

386

392

392

393

395 396

401

405

CHAPTER IX.

OF SECRETION AND EXCRETION

1 . General Considerations .

2. Secretion in Vegetables .

3 Secretion in Animals

Structure of Glands in general .

The Liver, and the Secretion of Bile .

Biliary Apparatus of Invertebrata

Vertebrata .

Development of Liver Properties and uses of Bile Of the Kidneys and the Urinary Excretion

Urinary Apparatus of Invertebrata

Vertebrata

Development of Kidney

Composition and Properties of Urine Cutaneous and Intestinal Secretions Special Secretions .

Metastasis of Secretion

407

409

410

411

417

417

421

424

425

429

429

429

432

434

438

438

439

CHAPTER X.

EVOLUTION OF LIGHT, HEAT, AND ELECTRICITY

1. General Considerations .

2. Evolution of Light .

Evolution of Light in Vegetables Evolution of Light in Animals

Luminosity of the Sea Luminous Insects

441 442 442 443 443 446

CONTENTS,

XV

3. Evolution of Heat .

Evolution of Heat in Vegetables Evolution of Heat in Animals

Cold-blooded Animals Insects

Warm-blooded Animals Conditions of Evolution of Heat

4. Evolution of Electricity .

Evolution of Electricity in Vegetables Evolution of Electricity in Animals

Electric Fishes .

PAGE

449 450 452 452 454

457 460 461 462 463 467

CHAPTER XI.

2

OF GENERATION AND DEVELOPMENT.

1. General Considerations ....

Developmental and Regenerating Power Multiplication by Gemmation True Generative Process Alternation (so-called) of Generations Generation and Development in Plants Multiplication of Phytoids . Generation and Development of Protophyta

Alg33 .

Characese Lichens Fungi .

Hepaticse and Ferns .

Equisetaceaa

Lycopodiaceas

Marsileaceae.

Gymnospermese

n . Angiospermous Phanerogamia

feneration and Development in Animal

Mosses

3.

,s

Multiplication of Zooids Development and Actions of Spermatozoa Development and Structure of Ova Fecundation of Ova, and subsequent Changes Generation and Development of Protozoa

Infusoria

Porifera Generation and Development of Radiate

Polypif

era

Compound Hydroida Acalephaa

Echinodermata

473 476

480 481 482 483 485 486 491 495 497 499 502 505 511

512

513 514 515 528 528 529 534 535 539 539

543 544 544 549 553 561

XVI

CONTENTS,

Generation and Development of Mollusca

Bryozoa Tunicata

Brachiopoda Lamellibranchiata Gasteropoda Cephalopoda

Generation and Development of Articulata

Entozoa Rotifera Annelida Myriapoda Insects . Crustacea

Cirrhipeda

Arachnida

Generative Apparatus of Vertebrata

Fishes . Reptiles Birds . Mammals

Embryonic Development of Vertebrata

Area Germinativa . Formation of Amnion Development of Allantois Formation of Placenta

Conditions determining Sex .

Lactation : Composition of Milk 4. On the Laws of the Exercise of the Reproductive

Species and Varieties . . . Hybridity ......

Modifying influence of External Conditions Origination of New Varieties Transmission of Acquired Peculiarities .

Function

PAGE

568

568 570

574 574 576 580 585 585 590 591 595 596 602 605

607 609

610

611

612

615 619 620 622

625 626 629 630 632 632 634 634

637 638

CHAPTER XII.

OF THE SENSIBLE MOTIONS OF LIVING BEINGS

1. General Considerations

2. Motions of Plants

640 642

3. Motions of Animals . . . . . . . . . .645

CHAPTER XIII.

OF THE FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

ft

1. General Considerations . . . '. .

2. Comparative View of the Nervous System in the Animal Series

No Evidence of Nervous System in Zoophytes

648 651

651

CONTENTS.

XV11

Nervous System of Radiata .

AcalepL.se

Echinodermata Nervous System of Mollusca

Bryozoa .

Tunicata

Brachiopoda

Lamellibranchiata Gasteropoda .

Cephalopoda . Nervous System of Articulata

Entozoa .

Annelida

Myriapoda Insects . Crustacea Arachnida Nervous System of Vertebrata

Fishes .

Reptiles . Birds

Mammalia History of Development of Brain Functions of the Cranio-Spinal A

Spinal Cord Medulla Oblongata Sensory Ganglia . Functions of the Cerebellum Functions of the Cerebrum

xis

General Summary

Sympathetic

PAGE

. 653

. 653

. 653

. 654

. 655

655

. 656

. 656

. 658

. 660

. 663

. 670

. 670

. 670

. 670

. 672

. 673

. 675

. 677 . 681

. 681

. 682 679—684

. 685

. 687

. 689

. 690

. 696

698 . 703

704

CHAPTER XIV.

OP SENSATION AND THE ORGANS

1. Of Sensation in General

2. Of the Sense of Touch, and its Instruments ' *• Ut the Sense of Taste, and its Instruments . *- Of the Sense of Smell, and its Instruments *• Of the Sense of Hearing, and its Instruments 6. Of the Sense of Sight, and its Instruments

OF THE SENSES

709

712 715 716

718 725

«4

CHAPTER XV.

O* THE PRODUCTION O* S0TJNI)S BY ANMALg

738

b

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

PIG.

1. Pterodactylus crassirostris (xxvi.)

2. Different forms of Anterior Member .

3. Diagram illustrating the Nature of Limbs (lxiv.)

4. Group of Anatifa Icevis (xxiii.) .

5. Anatomy of Anatifa Icevis (xxiii.)

6. Development of Balanus balanoides (vn.)

7. Comparison of Leucifer with. Lepas (xxv.)

8. Ophiura texturata .

9. P entacrinites briareus (xvi.) 10. Hermospora transversalis (lxix.)

11.

velutina

12. Mesogloia vermicularis (lxix.) .

13. Z onaria plantaginea (lxix.)

14. Dasya huetzingiana (lxix.)

15. Marginaria gigas (lxix.) .

16. Parmelia acetabulum (lxix.)

17. Sphcerophora coralloides (lxix.)

18. Stysanus caput-medusce (lxix.)

19. Clavaria crispula (lxix.) .

20. jEcidium tussilaginis (lxix.)

21. Marchantia polymorpha (lxix.)

22. Fissidens bryoides (lxix.) .

23. Marchantia polymorpha with antheridia (lxix.)

24. Marchantia polymorpha with pistillidia (lxix.)

25. Polytrichum commune (lxix.) .

26. Trichomanes speciosum (lxix.) .

27. Frond of Scolopendrium vulgar e (lxix. )

28. Frond of Osmunda regalis (lxix.)

29. Equisetum arvense (lxix.) .

30. Lycopodium cernuum (lxix.) .

31. Marsilea quadrifolia (lxix.)

32. Ideal Plant (lxxviii.)

33. Amoeba princeps (xxxv .) .

34. Hydra fusca (xc.) . . -

35. Diagrammatic section of Actinia (lxxx.)

36. Structure of Cyancea aurita (xxxvi.)

37. Anatomy of Asterias aurantiaca (lxxxviii.)

38. Comatula rosacea (xxxix.)

PAGE 4

5

9 12 12 14 14 19 19 22 22 24

24

24 24 25 25

26

27 27 28 28 29

29

29

30

30

30

30

31

32

33

40

43

44

46

47

48

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

XIX

FIG.

39 40 41

42

43

44

45.

46

47

48

49

50

51

52 53

54 55 56

57

58

59

60 61

62 63 64 65 66

67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77. 78 79 80 81

82 83

84 85 86

87.

Echinus mammillatus (xxiii. ) Anatomy of Holothuria tubulosa (xxni.) Ohitonellus and Chiton (xvni.) Salpa maxima (xxm.^ Anatomy of Mactra (xxxiv.) Anatomy of Paludina vivipara (xxn.) Shells of Gasteropod MollusJcs (xvni.) &yalcea, Criseis, and Clio (xvni.) Sepia officinalis (xvni.)

Embryoes of Nudibranchiate Gasteropoda (n.)

Laguncula repens (xcv.)

Anatomy of Aplysia (xxn. )

Botryllus violaceus (xxiii.)

Anatomy of Strongylus gig as (xi.)

Nephthys Hombergii (xxiii.)

lulus (xxxiv.)

Scolopendra (xxxiv.)

Section of the trunk of Melolontha vulgaris (lxxxiv.)

Ideal Section of Sphinx ligustri (lxiii.)

Anatomy of Cancer pagur us (xxxiv.)

Inferior surface of Limulus moluccanus (xxxiv.)

Cyclops quadricornis (vi.)

Diagram of Archetype Vertebral Skeleton (lxv.)

Ideal Section of a Mammal (lxiv.)

Oblique view of Vertebra of Cod (lxxiv.)

Bimanus and Seps (xxxiv.)

Emysaura Serpentina (xxvu.)

Skeleton of Ichthyosaurus (xxvi.)

Skeleton of Plesiosaurus (xxvi. )

Skull of M ososaurus (xxi.)

Portion of jaw of Megalosaurus (xxi.)

Portion of lower jaw and teeth of Iguanodon (lvh.)

Lower jaw of Phascolotherium Bucklandii (lxvii )

Molar tooth of A siatic Elephant (xxi. )

Duplicative subdivision of cells of Chlamydomonas (xxxv )

^arly stage of Mammalian Ovum (xix.) and Young of Volvox

Micothoe astaci (xcvi.)

Ogygia Buchii (xvn.) and Limulus moluccanus (xxxiv.)

Metamorphosis of Carcinus mamas (xx. ) .

Homocercal and Heterocercal Tails of Fish

Skeleton of Palwotherium magnum (xxi.)

Molar tooth of Mastodon (xxi.)

Caryocrinites ornatus (xv.)

Lingula anatina (xvni.)

Section of shell of Nautilus pompiMm (xvm ) Exterior view and section of Orthoceratite (xvni. Cephalaspis Lyellii , V

Skull of Labyrinthodon Skull of Myncosaurus (lxviii. )

62

PAGE

. 48

. 49

. 51

. 51

. . 52

. 53

. 53

. 54

. 54

. 54

. 55

. 58

. 60

. 61

. 63

. 63

. 65

. 68

. 69

. 70

. 70

. 73

. 75

. 78

. 80

. 81

. 82

. 82

. 84

. 85

. 8b

. 94

. 94

. 95

. 95

. 100

. 108

. 108

. 109

. 110

. Ill

. 112

. 113

. 113

11

3

114 115 115

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Skeleton of Mylodon (lxvi.)

mag

FIG.

88.

89. Pitchers of Dischidia Rafflesiana (c.)

90. Polygastric Animalcules, according to Ehrenberg (xxxv.)

91. Section of young branch of Alcyonium stellatum (xxxiii.)

92. Digestive apparatus of Rhiz ostoma (xxiii.)

93. Digestive apparatus of Thaumantias (xxxviii.)

94. Holoihuria phantapus (xxiii.)

95. Anatomy of Echinus lividus (xxiii.)

96. Rotifer vulgaris (xxxv.) . ....

97. Compound stomach of Sheep ....

98. Section of part of the Stomach of Sheep (xxxvu.)

99. Portions of Campanularia gelatinosa, natural size, and

100. Sections of Alcyonian Polype (xxxiii.) .

101. Structure of Polycelis kevigatus (lxxi.) .

102. Cydippe pileus (xl.) and Beroe Forskalii (xxiii.)

103. Digestive apparatus of Annelida (xxiii.)

104. Eolis Inca, sl Nudibranchiate Gasteropod (n.) .

105. Digestive apparatus of Ammothea pycnogonoides (lxx

106. Digestive apparatus of My gale (xxiii.)

107. Digestive apparatus of Common Fowl (xxxiv.)

108. Villi of Human Intestine

109. Longitudinal Section of Stem of Italian Reed (lxxviii.)

110. Laticiferous Vessels (lxxxi.) ....

111. Blood-vessels of Frog's foot (xcix.)

112. Formation of Capillaries in Tail of Tadpole (l.)

113. Circulating apparatus of Terebella conchilega (xxx.)

114. Circulating apparatus of Eunice sanguinea (xxx.)

115. Circulating apparatus of Arenicola ^iscatorum (xxx

116. Dorsal vessel of Scolopendra (lxiii.)

117. Circulating system of Scolopendra (lxiii.)

118. Circulating system of B uthus (lxiii.)

119. Heart of M ygale (xxiii.) ....

120. Circulating system of Lobster (xxviii.) .

121. Anatomy of A maroucium proliferum (xxix.) .

122. Circulating system of Salpa maxima (xxiii.) .

123. Circulating system of Pinna marina (xxxn.) .

124. Circulating system of Snail (xxxiv.) . .

125. Circulating system of Octopus (xxiii.) .

126. Circulating system of J^M (xxiii.) .

127. Anatomy of A mphioxus (lxiv.)

128. Circulating system of Lizard (xxxiv.)

129. Respiratory Circulation in Tadpole (xxxiv.)

130. The same in transition state (xxxiv.)

131. The same in the perfect Frog (xxxiv.)

132. Diagram of the Circulation in Birds and Mammals

133. Vascular area of Fowl's egg (xcix.)

134. Diagram of formation of great Arterial trunks in Fowl

135. Diagram of Circulation in Human Embryo (en.)

136. Water-vascular system of Tcenia solium (xi.) .

nified

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('xxxiv.)

(

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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG.

137. Anatomy of Fasciola hepaticum (xi. )

138. Anatomy of Perophora (lvi. ) . . ]

139. Portion of Branchial sac of Perophora (lvi.) .'

140. Respiratory apparatus of Pholas crispata {in.)

141. Branchial lamina of Pholas crispata (m.)

142. Portion of gill of Doris Johnstoni (n.) . 43. Doris Johnstoni, showing tuft of external gills (n.)

144. Cephalic tuft of Sahella unispira (xxxiv.)

145. Branchial arch and leaflets of Fish .

146. Lamprey, showing branchial orifices 47. Proteus anguineus, showing external branchiae (xxvu.)

148. Axolotl, showing external branchiae (xxvu.)

149. Tracheal system of Nepa cinerea (xxxiv. )

150. Lepidosiren paradoxa (xxxiv. )

151. Respiratory organs of Prog (xxxvu.)

152. Lungs oiBimanus, Bipes, and Coluber (xxxvu.)

153. Section of Lung of Turtle (xii.) 153*. Pulmonary apparatus of Pigeon (xxxvu. )

154. Capillaries of air-cells of Human Lung

155. Vertical Section of leaf of Mium album (xiv.)

1 56. Under surface of leaf of Mium album (xiv. )

157. Surface and Section of frond of Marchantia polymorpha (lviii

158. Sudoriparous Gland from Human Hand (xoix.)

)

160* p!!^l0f,L!rf.Of/rW:.Sh0willg Primordial brides of cells (xlh

Portions of Nitella fiexilis, natural size and enlarged (lxxxi ) i fi9 ^rculation of fluid in hairs of Tradescantia Virginica (lxxxi.

1 «q* XT™118 Stag6S °f devel°Pment of Seematococcus binalis (xliii ) 1 (u r7 °CeSS °f ^-^^Plication in Conferva glomerata (lix. ) 04. development of zoospores of Achlya prolifera (xcm.)

1«« ^P11^011 of Cartilage-cells by subdivision (liii.)

I Ob. Section of branchial Cartilage of Tadpole (lxxix.)

^07. Endogenous cell-growth, in cells of Meliceritous Tumour (xli )

tells with radiating fibres (i.)

Capillary network around follicles of Parotid Glan

Glandular follicles of Stomach (lxi.)

Mammary Gland of Ornithorhyncus (lxi.)

172. Rudimentary Pancreas, from Cod (lxi.) .

173. Lobule of Parotid Gland of Human Infant (xoix.)

174. Biliary tubuli of Musca carnaria (lii.) .

175. Hepatic caecum of Astacus affinis (lxi.) .

176. Lobules of Liver of Squitta (lxi. ) .

177. Glandular cells of Human Liver

168. 169. 170. 171.

178. 179. 180. 181.

182.

183.

184.

Arrangement of Blood-vessels in Human Liver (xlvi'ii ) Connection of Lobules of Liver with Hepatic Vein (xlviii Early stage 0f Development of Liver of FoWl (lxi.) . Kidney of Fcetal Boa (lxi.) . Section of Kidney of Coluber (lxi ) ' ' ' Pyramidal fasciculus of Tubuli urinif eri of Bird (lxii. ) Section of Human Kidney (on. )

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XX11

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG.

185.

Portion of Tubulus Uriniferus with tesselated epithelium (xcix.)

186. Distribution of Vessels of Kidney (xin.)

187. Corpora Wolffiana, from Chick (lxii.) ....

188. Noctiluca miliaris (lxxii.) ....••

189. Pelagia noctiluca (xxxiv.)

190. Electric Apparatus of Torpedo (lxxvi.) ....

191. Diagram of Generative Process in Plants . . .

192. Multiplication of Coccochloris by subdivision (xliii.)

193. Conjugation of Euastrum oblongum (lxxiii.) .

194. Conjugation of Eunotia turgida (lxxxvii.)

195. Development of Spores mAulacoseira (lxxxvii.)

196. Conjugation of Zygnema (li.)

197. Generative apparatus of Fucus platycarpus (lxxxvi. )

198. Tetraspores of Carpocaidon mediterranean (li.)

199. Generative apparatus of Chara foetida (lxxxi.)

200. Generative apparatus of Collema pulposum (xci.) .

201. Generative apparatus of Tremella mesenterica (xcn.)

202. Generative apparatus of Agaricus campestris (lxxvii.)

203. Development of Torula cerevisice

204. Development of Archegonia of Marchantia (lxix.) .

205. Archegonia of Jungermannia (xliv.) ....

206. Sporangia on lobed receptacles of Marchantia (lxix.)

207. Gemmiparous conceptacles of Marchantia (lviii.) .

208. Development of prothallium of Pteris (liy.) .

209. More advanced prothallium of Pteris (liv.)

210. Development of Antheridia and Antherozoids of Pteris (liv.)

211. Development of Archegonium of Pteris (liv.) .

212. Development of Embryo of Poly podium (liv.) .

213. Fructification of Equisetum arvense (lxix.)

214. Generation and Development of Lycopodium (xliv.)

215. Sporocarp of Marsilea quadrifolia (lxix.) . . .

216. Germination of Marsilea Fabri (lxix.) . . . .

217. Generative apparatus of Conifers (xliv.)

218. Development of Embryo of (Enotheracece (xlv.)

219. Embryoes of Potamogeton and Amygdalus (xlvii.) .

220. Germination of Zanichellia and Acer (xlvii.) . 221 Constituent parts of Mammalian Ovum (xix.) 222* Segmentation of vitellus of Ascaris acuminata (v.) . 223 First segmentation of vitellus of Mammalian Ovum (xix.)

224. Early stages of development of Coregonus (xcvu.) . .

225. Fissiparous multiplication of Chilodon cncullulus (xxxv.) .

226. Group of Vorticcllw in various states (xxxv.) . 227*. Development and Metamorphosis of Vorticella microstoma (lxxxiii.) . 542

228. Gemmation of Hydra fitsca (xc.) .

229. Generative apparatus of Actinia (lxxxv.)

■230. 231.

Development of polype-bud of Campamdaria (xciv.) Generation and Development of Cordylophora lacmtrU (iv.)

If i 1 w 1 I \ j I m_\j \J A. \-/ **-^ «^*r-"—

232'. Development of Medusa-buds from Perigminwa (lxxv.) 233. Medusiform gemin» of Cam^autdarla (xciv.) .

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490 492 495 496 498 499 500 501 502 502 503 504 505 , 506 . 507 . 508 . 509 . 511 . 512 . 513 . 513 . 514 . 518 . 520 . 522 . 534 . 537 . 538 . 539 . 540 . 541

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m

Crinoid state of Comatula rosacea (xxm.) . \ Development of embryo of Echinaster rubens (lxxv. )

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIG.

234. Strobila (or polypoid state of Medusa) propagating by gemmation

o ^rroup of Strobila? in process of Medusan gemmation (xxiv. ) JZ' ^yel°Vm^ °f Medusa-buds from Strobila (xxiv.) . 9*' ^evel°Pment ot Medusa from Strobila-gemm* (xxiv.) tZ' ^emmiParous multiplication of Cytceis (lxxv.) **». Structure of FeZeMa Zimfant (xlvi ) 240. «■■•■•-■ 7

242. Mpinnana asterigera, or larva of Starih (Lxi7) <M. Embryonic development of Echinus (lxii.)

245. 246.

I. Anatomy of more-advanced embryo of Amaroucium (xxix.)

249.

250. 251.

252.

253.

254.

255.

« #

xxm

Origin of Ophiura from Pluteus (lxii. ) . Gemmiparous extension of Laguncula (xcv.) Development of embryo of A maroucium (xxix. ) Anatomy of more-advanced embryo of A maraud* Development of embryo of A cteon viridis (xcvn. ) Male Argonaut, showing Hectoeotylus-arm (lx.) Successive stages of development of Sepia (xlix. ) Generative apparatus of Taenia solium (xi. ) Generative apparatus of Distoma hepaticum (xi ) Generative organs of Nais filiformis (xxm. ) Early stages of development of Terebella nebulosa (xxxi )

,„ J, f ecti0n of Larva of Sphinx ligustri (lxiii.) .

256. Ideal Section of Pnpa of Sphinx ligustri (lxiii.)

**l. Generative Apparatus of Fowl (xxxvn.) .

88. Later stage of segmentation of Mammalian Ovum (xix )

260 Ovm M/ ™Ddi*S I** f-m Uterine Ovum (xix.) W. Ovum of Coregonus, in early stage of development (xcvn

oi. incipient formation of Amnion (xcix.)

^ "' Embryo of Coregonus (xcvn.) 263. mi

264.

o^r T . . *" "v Vi «««iwii in jauman uvum (xcix 1

266.' F^nt/°rrti0n °f ^Uant0is * ^— ^um (xcix.)

The same more advanced (xcvn.)

Further development of Amnion in Human Ovum (xcix \

Indent formation of Allantois in Human Ovum (xcix'

267 iT I deV!l0pment of Allantois m fcw Ovum (xix!

268 lZ °f VaSCUlar TuftS in ffuman °™ (J

268. Extremity of Villus of Human